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Ophélie Pascault PhD thesis

Field on the Basque Cantabrian Contry - Urgonian carbonate platforme intruded by magmatic volcanismThe role of hypogean fluids in development of giant marine carbonate bodies. Case of the Basque-Cantabrian hyper-extended basin (Spain) during the Aptian-Albian

Started in september 2020

Funding: private contract (Modis)

Supervisor: Thomas Saucède (Biogéosciences) ; cosupervisor: Aurélien Virgone (R&D TOTAL S.A) ; technical supervisor: Christophe Durlet (Biogéosciences)

 

Abstract

Deep fractured areas of oceanic crusts and continental margins can be conducive to ascending hypogean fluids (liquid and gaz) that can reach the water-sediment interface. Mineralizations, dissolutions and specific ecosystems may result from these fluids. Those rich in CH4, H2S, Ca2+, or Mg2+ are especially known to feed carbonate precipitations (Peckmann et al., 1999; Campbell, 2006) in relation with chemotrophic and non-chemotrophic biological communities that influence facies types, including the porosity. Decimetric (Franchi et al., 2014) to hectometric (Berndt et al., 2016) chemoherms may result from this activity, both in modern and fossil settings.

Many cases of carbonate chemoherms are linked to hydrocarbons fluids (methane, oil …) in relative deep marine environment where bacteria degrade these hydrocarbons and led to increase the calcite saturation index. However, in case of CO2-rich hypogean fluids, without hydrocarbons, the possibility of giant marine carbonate bodies boosted by CO2 inputs are more questionable, less studied and mentioned in the bibliography (Hovland, 2008). CO2–rich hypogean fluids are more known in modern seas to generate carbonate dissolutions at the seabed around the vents, and eventually to boost the production of organic matters (Agostini et al., 2018; Pichler et al., 2019). However, several tens or hundreds of meters from the CO2–rich vents, degazing CO2 phenomena and photosynthetic CO2 consumption would lead to increase the calcitic/dolomitic/aragonitic saturation index, thus the precipitation/re-precipitation of carbonates. This possibility is poorly documented in modern seas (Pishler & Dix, 1996) and remains discussed in the fossil record.

This PhD research will evaluate this possible process for the establishment and growth of wide carbonate buildups in a fossil hyper-extended basin with submarine volcanic intrusions and probable CO2 inputs. The target is the Basque-Cantabrian basin during the Aptiana-Albian (end of the lower Cretaceous) at the northwestern margin of the Iberian Peninsula. This well studied basin (e.g., Garcia-Senz et al., 2019), with good outcrops carbonate platforms (the so-called Urgonian platforms) and giant mudmounds above or near synsedimentary faults (Pascal, 1985) is linked to the Atlantic opening. It exposes several cases of synsedimentary volcanism with submarine effusions, dykes or pyroclastics which can be inserted both in platform or basinal series (Robador & Garcia de Cortazar, 1986; Fernandez-Mendiola & Garcia-Mondéjar, 2003).

The scientific protocol to investigate this basin and to look for concrete arguments proving the volcanic influence in the development of wide carbonate bodies will be (i) structural and geodynamic (to select targets implanted in areas of synsedimentary fractures likely to have delivered hypogean fluids), (ii) sedimentological (facies and architectures), (iii) paleontological (to study possible specific faunas and their role in mineralizations), (iv) geochemical (to search for tracers of hypogenic ascents) and (v) diagenetics (to characterize the timing of hypogenic ascents and to understand the temporal evolution of the porosity).

Silicite facies located in the post volcanism event interval - hydrothermalism paroxysm? Spiculites on field / in thin section located in the post volcanism event interval - hydrothermalism activity? Lumachella of bivalves located in the post volcanism event interval - hydrothermalism activity?

Bibliography

Agostini, S., Harvey, B. P., Wada, S., Kon, K., Milazzo, M., Inaba, K., & Hall-Spencer, J. M. (2018). Ocean acidification drives community shifts towards simplified non-calcified habitats in a subtropical− temperate transition zone. Scientific reports, 8(1), 11354.

Berndt, C., Hensen, C., Mortera-Gutierrez, C., Sarkar, S., Geilert, S., Schmidt, M., … & Muff, S. (2016). Rifting under steam—How rift magmatism triggers methane venting from sedimentary basins. Geology, 44(9), 767-770.

Campbell, K.A. (2006). Hydrocarbon seep and hydrothermal vent palaeoenvironments and paleontology: past developments and future research directions. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 232, 362–407

Fernández‐Mendiola, P. A., & Garcia‐Mondéjar, J. (2003). Carbonate platform growth influenced by contemporaneous basaltic intrusion (Albian of Larrano, Spain). Sedimentology, 50(5), 961-978.

Franchi, F., Cavalazzi, B., Pierre, C., Barbieri, R. (2014). New evidences of hydrothermal fluids circulation at the Devonian Kess Kess mounds, Hamar Laghdad (eastern Anti- Atlas, Morocco). Geological Journal 50, 634–650.

Garcia-Senz, J., Parias, A. P., Galán, C. A., Ruiz-Constán, A., Moreno, A. R., & Rodríguez-Fernández, L. R. (2019). Inversion of the North-Iberian hyperextended margin: the role of exhumed mantle indentation during continental collision. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 490, SP490-2019.

Hovland, M. (2008). Deep-Water Coral Reefs. Unique Biodiversity Hot-Spots. Published in January 2008, by Springer.

Pascal, A. (1985). Les systèmes biosédimentaires urgoniens (Aptien-Albien) sur la marge nord-ibérique (Doctoral dissertation). Université de Dijon.

Peckmann, J., Walliser, O.H., Riegel, W., Reitner, J,. (1999). Signatures of hydrocarbon venting in a Middle Devonian car-bonate mound (Hollard Mound) at the Hamar Laghdad (Antiatlas, Morocco). Facies 40:281–296.

Pichler, T., & Dix, G. R. (1996). Hydrothermal venting within a coral reef ecosystem, Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea. Geology, 24(5), 435-438.

Pichler, T., Biscéré, T., Kinch, J., Zampighi, M., Houlbrèque, F., & Rodolfo-Metalpa, R. (2019). Suitability of the shallow water hydrothermal system at Ambitle Island (Papua New Guinea) to study the effect of high pCO2 on coral reefs. Marine pollution bulletin, 138, 148-158.

Robador, A., & Garcia de Cortazar, A. (1986). Depositos vulcanosedimentarios en el Aptiense-Albiense de la Cuenca Vasco-Cantabriaca y su relacion con fracturas de actuacion sinsedimentaria. Abstract, 11th Spanish Sedimentological Congress, Barcelona, P. 149.

Keywords

marine carbonate ; hydrothermalism ; reef ; mounds ; volcanism ; Lower Cretaceous ;  Spain

 

Thesis advisory panel

Thomas Saucède (supervisor)
Aurélien Virgone (cosupervisor)
Christophe Durlet (cosupervisor)
Arnaud Brayard (Biogéosciences)
Stephan Jorry (Ifremer)

extrait:
lien_externe:
titre:
Rôle des fluides hypogéens dans l’implantation et la croissance de vastes corps carbonatés sous-marins. Cas de la marge en hyper-extension de l’Aptien-Albien du bassin basco-cantabre
date_de_debut_these:
septembre 2020
nom:
Pascault
date_de_debut_these_numerique:
202010
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Field on the Basque Cantabrian Contry - Urgonian carbonate platforme intruded by magmatic volcanismThe role of hypogean fluids in development of giant marine carbonate bodies. Case of the Basque-Cantabrian hyper-extended basin (Spain) during the Aptian-Albian

Started in september 2020

Funding: private contract (Modis)

Supervisor: Thomas Saucède (Biogéosciences) ; cosupervisor: Aurélien Virgone (R&D TOTAL S.A) ; technical supervisor: Christophe Durlet (Biogéosciences)

 

Abstract

Deep fractured areas of oceanic crusts and continental margins can be conducive to ascending hypogean fluids (liquid and gaz) that can reach the water-sediment interface. Mineralizations, dissolutions and specific ecosystems may result from these fluids. Those rich in CH4, H2S, Ca2+, or Mg2+ are especially known to feed carbonate precipitations (Peckmann et al., 1999; Campbell, 2006) in relation with chemotrophic and non-chemotrophic biological communities that influence facies types, including the porosity. Decimetric (Franchi et al., 2014) to hectometric (Berndt et al., 2016) chemoherms may result from this activity, both in modern and fossil settings.

Many cases of carbonate chemoherms are linked to hydrocarbons fluids (methane, oil …) in relative deep marine environment where bacteria degrade these hydrocarbons and led to increase the calcite saturation index. However, in case of CO2-rich hypogean fluids, without hydrocarbons, the possibility of giant marine carbonate bodies boosted by CO2 inputs are more questionable, less studied and mentioned in the bibliography (Hovland, 2008). CO2–rich hypogean fluids are more known in modern seas to generate carbonate dissolutions at the seabed around the vents, and eventually to boost the production of organic matters (Agostini et al., 2018; Pichler et al., 2019). However, several tens or hundreds of meters from the CO2–rich vents, degazing CO2 phenomena and photosynthetic CO2 consumption would lead to increase the calcitic/dolomitic/aragonitic saturation index, thus the precipitation/re-precipitation of carbonates. This possibility is poorly documented in modern seas (Pishler & Dix, 1996) and remains discussed in the fossil record.

This PhD research will evaluate this possible process for the establishment and growth of wide carbonate buildups in a fossil hyper-extended basin with submarine volcanic intrusions and probable CO2 inputs. The target is the Basque-Cantabrian basin during the Aptiana-Albian (end of the lower Cretaceous) at the northwestern margin of the Iberian Peninsula. This well studied basin (e.g., Garcia-Senz et al., 2019), with good outcrops carbonate platforms (the so-called Urgonian platforms) and giant mudmounds above or near synsedimentary faults (Pascal, 1985) is linked to the Atlantic opening. It exposes several cases of synsedimentary volcanism with submarine effusions, dykes or pyroclastics which can be inserted both in platform or basinal series (Robador & Garcia de Cortazar, 1986; Fernandez-Mendiola & Garcia-Mondéjar, 2003).

The scientific protocol to investigate this basin and to look for concrete arguments proving the volcanic influence in the development of wide carbonate bodies will be (i) structural and geodynamic (to select targets implanted in areas of synsedimentary fractures likely to have delivered hypogean fluids), (ii) sedimentological (facies and architectures), (iii) paleontological (to study possible specific faunas and their role in mineralizations), (iv) geochemical (to search for tracers of hypogenic ascents) and (v) diagenetics (to characterize the timing of hypogenic ascents and to understand the temporal evolution of the porosity).

Silicite facies located in the post volcanism event interval - hydrothermalism paroxysm? Spiculites on field / in thin section located in the post volcanism event interval - hydrothermalism activity? Lumachella of bivalves located in the post volcanism event interval - hydrothermalism activity?

Bibliography

Agostini, S., Harvey, B. P., Wada, S., Kon, K., Milazzo, M., Inaba, K., & Hall-Spencer, J. M. (2018). Ocean acidification drives community shifts towards simplified non-calcified habitats in a subtropical− temperate transition zone. Scientific reports, 8(1), 11354.

Berndt, C., Hensen, C., Mortera-Gutierrez, C., Sarkar, S., Geilert, S., Schmidt, M., ... & Muff, S. (2016). Rifting under steam—How rift magmatism triggers methane venting from sedimentary basins. Geology, 44(9), 767-770.

Campbell, K.A. (2006). Hydrocarbon seep and hydrothermal vent palaeoenvironments and paleontology: past developments and future research directions. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 232, 362–407

Fernández‐Mendiola, P. A., & Garcia‐Mondéjar, J. (2003). Carbonate platform growth influenced by contemporaneous basaltic intrusion (Albian of Larrano, Spain). Sedimentology, 50(5), 961-978.

Franchi, F., Cavalazzi, B., Pierre, C., Barbieri, R. (2014). New evidences of hydrothermal fluids circulation at the Devonian Kess Kess mounds, Hamar Laghdad (eastern Anti- Atlas, Morocco). Geological Journal 50, 634–650.

Garcia-Senz, J., Parias, A. P., Galán, C. A., Ruiz-Constán, A., Moreno, A. R., & Rodríguez-Fernández, L. R. (2019). Inversion of the North-Iberian hyperextended margin: the role of exhumed mantle indentation during continental collision. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 490, SP490-2019.

Hovland, M. (2008). Deep-Water Coral Reefs. Unique Biodiversity Hot-Spots. Published in January 2008, by Springer.

Pascal, A. (1985). Les systèmes biosédimentaires urgoniens (Aptien-Albien) sur la marge nord-ibérique (Doctoral dissertation). Université de Dijon.

Peckmann, J., Walliser, O.H., Riegel, W., Reitner, J,. (1999). Signatures of hydrocarbon venting in a Middle Devonian car-bonate mound (Hollard Mound) at the Hamar Laghdad (Antiatlas, Morocco). Facies 40:281–296.

Pichler, T., & Dix, G. R. (1996). Hydrothermal venting within a coral reef ecosystem, Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea. Geology, 24(5), 435-438.

Pichler, T., Biscéré, T., Kinch, J., Zampighi, M., Houlbrèque, F., & Rodolfo-Metalpa, R. (2019). Suitability of the shallow water hydrothermal system at Ambitle Island (Papua New Guinea) to study the effect of high pCO2 on coral reefs. Marine pollution bulletin, 138, 148-158.

Robador, A., & Garcia de Cortazar, A. (1986). Depositos vulcanosedimentarios en el Aptiense-Albiense de la Cuenca Vasco-Cantabriaca y su relacion con fracturas de actuacion sinsedimentaria. Abstract, 11th Spanish Sedimentological Congress, Barcelona, P. 149.

Keywords

marine carbonate ; hydrothermalism ; reef ; mounds ; volcanism ; Lower Cretaceous ;  Spain

 

Thesis advisory panel

Thomas Saucède (supervisor)
Aurélien Virgone (cosupervisor)
Christophe Durlet (cosupervisor)
Arnaud Brayard (Biogéosciences)
Stephan Jorry (Ifremer)

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